All 3 kinds of light exist as a wave function unless they encounter molecular structures of a sufficient size to cause the quantum wave function to phase into a photonic particle. It is this quality that allows their unimpeded transmission through outer space. With infrared radiation, large atmospheric molecules like carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, etcetera absorb this photonic energy — while nitrogen and oxygen are too small to be able to do so and let it pass by unimpeded.
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